IMR Press / CEOG / Volume 48 / Issue 4 / DOI: 10.31083/j.ceog4804125
Open Access Review
The impact of Cesarean section on female fertility: a narrative review
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1 Clinical Division of Gynecologic Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
*Correspondence: (Johannes Ott)
Clin. Exp. Obstet. Gynecol. 2021, 48(4), 781–786;
Submitted: 11 April 2021 | Revised: 18 May 2021 | Accepted: 10 June 2021 | Published: 15 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Caesarean Section Today - “Caesarology in the 21st Century”)
Copyright: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license (

Objective: The mode of giving birth has changed over the years. In 1990, approximately 10% of women delivered by Cesarean section (CS), whereas this procedure is performed daily in obstetrics today. When a surgical intervention performed, it is necessary to consider special risks and complications, including long-term effects. Mechanism: This review focuses on fertility after CS. Evidence suggests that many women who aim to have subsequent children have difficulties becoming pregnant after they have delivered by CS. Findings: There are several causes for subfertility/infertility after CS, including post-Cesarean niches, intraabdominal adhesions, and the preference for a smaller family size, among others. Conclusion: This review provides an overview of the available literature, which supports the conclusion that CS is associated with decreased odds of subsequent pregnancy and live birth.

Cesarean section
Fallopian tubes
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