IMR Press / CEOG / Volume 45 / Issue 5 / DOI: 10.12891/ceog4341.2018

Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology (CEOG) is published by IMR Press from Volume 47 Issue 1 (2020). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with S.O.G.

Original Research
Association between metabolic risks and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women
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1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang, Korea
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Korea
Clin. Exp. Obstet. Gynecol. 2018, 45(5), 671–676;
Published: 10 October 2018

Background: Menopause is associated with osteoporosis and an increased risk of metabolic disorders, including obesity, abdominal adiposity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance, which may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent studies have demonstrated a correlation between fat, glucose, and bone metabolism which could contribute to CVD and osteoporosis. This study examined the association between metabolic risk factors and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: The authors determined the anthropometric values [waist-hip ratio (WHR), visceral fat area (VFA), body fat mass (BFM), and skeletal muscle mass (SMM)], lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose levels, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores, serum leptin and adiponectin levels, serum osteocalcin level [total osteocalcin (tOC) and undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC)], and BMDs of the lumbar spine and femoral neck in 137 postmenopausal women. Results: There was a positive correlation between BFM, HOMA-IR score, serum leptin level, and BMD of the lumbar spine, and a negative correlation between BFM, total cholesterol, serum adiponectin, and BMD of the lumbar spine after adjusting for age, years since menopause, current alcohol consumption, and current smoking status. In a multiple regression analysis, serum adiponectin level and SMM were the most important predictors of the BMD of the lumbar spine. Conclusion: There were several metabolic risk variables that had a harmful effect on the BMD of the lumbar spine, but not the femoral neck. However, higher serum adiponectin levels were negatively correlated with BMD of the lumbar spine as adiposity decreased.
Bone mineral density
Metabolic syndrome
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