IMR Press / RCM / Volume 9 / Issue 3 / pii/1560999980233-1949206026

Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine (RCM) is published by IMR Press from Volume 19 Issue 1 (2018). Previous articles were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with MedReviews, LLC.

Open Access Review
Sleep Apnea and the Heart: Diagnosis and Treatment
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1 Department of Cardiology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2008, 9(3), 159–167;
Published: 30 September 2008
Although sleep apnea is closely associated with cardiovascular disease, it remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. Obstructive sleep apnea elicits a cascade of harmful cardiovascular stimuli, and central sleep apnea is a prognostic factor for heart failure and may exert adverse effects on outcomes. The adverse effects of obstructive sleep apnea can promote the development of atherosclerosis and have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Sleep apnea characterized by variables of the autonomic nervous system may have a direct association with arrhythmia. Polysomnography with electroencephalography is the gold standard for assessing sleep apnea. Alternative methods of screening for OSA have recently become available. Continuous positive airway pressure for obstructive sleep apnea reduces cardiac risk and cardiovascular disease mortality. Targeting sleep apnea in the primary and/or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease may lead to better outcomes.
Heart failure
Sleep apnea
Cardiovascular disease
Apneahypopnea index
Continuous positive airway pressure
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