IMR Press / RCM / Volume 4 / Issue S7 / pii/1587892344911-1052916198

Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine (RCM) is published by IMR Press from Volume 19 Issue 1 (2018). Previous articles were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with MedReviews, LLC.

Open Access Review
Treatment of the Acute Decompensation of Heart Failure: Efficacy and Pharmacoeconomics of Early Initiation of Therapy in the Emergency Department
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1 Department of Emergency Medicine, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2003, 4(S7), 13–20;
Published: 15 December 2003
Most patients admitted with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) go through the emergency department as their initial point of care. New diagnostic tests hold the promise to improve the clinical accuracy of the emergency physicians’ diagnosis. Beyond that there is growing recognition that the treatment provided initially has an important impact on the subsequent inpatient course. Basic care for ADHF has involved oxygen as needed, diuretics, and, occasionally, topical or sublingual nitroglycerin. A substantial proportion of patients are treated with vasoactive agents including inotropes and vasodilators such as nitroglycerin and nesiritide. Unfortunately, inotropes have not been demonstrated to improve the outcome of heart failure and, in fact, may be deleterious. The newer agent, nesiritide, has the advantage of being a balanced vasodilator with favorable effects on diuresis, symptom relief, and neurohormones. Evidence from registries indicates that early initiation of nesiritide compared to delayed initiation leads to improved outcomes with shorter lengths of stay, shorter stays in the intensive care unit, and a lower mortality rate. This article reviews the initial management of ADHF, the role of early initiation of vasodilator therapy, and the pharmacoeconomics of nesiritide treatment.
B-type natriuretic peptide
Acute decompensated heart failure
Vasoactive therapy
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