- Academic Editors
†These authors contributed equally.
Chemotherapies have changed the prognosis of patients affected by cancer over the last 20 years, with a significant increase in survival rates. However, they can cause serious adverse effects that may limit their use. In particular, anthracyclines, widely used to treat both hematologic cancers and solid cancers, may cause cardiac toxicity, leading to the development of heart failure in some cases. This review aims to explore current evidence with regards to anthracyclines’ cardiotoxicity, with particular focus on the classifications and underlying molecular mechanisms, in order to provide an overview on the current methods of its diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. An attentive approach and a prompt management of patients undergoing treatment with anthracyclines is imperative to avoid preventable antineoplastic drug discontinuation and is conducive to improving both short-term and long-term cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.