IMR Press / RCM / Volume 22 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm.2021.01.216
Open Access Original Research
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers in acute heart failure: invasive hemodynamic parameters and clinical outcomes
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1 Department of Internal Medicine, Einstein Medical Center, 19141 Philadelphia, USA
2 Department of Internal Medicine, Abington-Jefferson Health, Abington, PA 19001, USA
3 Division of Nephrology, Columbia VA Health Care System, Columbia, SC 29209, USA
4 Baylor University Medical Center, 75226 Dallas, USA
5 Baylor Jack and Jane Hamilton Heart and Vascular Hospital, Baylor Heart and Vascular Institute, 75226 Dallas, USA
6 Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Einstein Medical Center, 19141 Philadelphia, USA
7 Sidney Kimmel College of Thomas Jefferson University, 19107 Philadelphia, USA

Academic Editor: Federico Ronco

Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2021, 22(1), 199–206;
Submitted: 15 October 2020 | Revised: 27 November 2020 | Accepted: 8 December 2020 | Published: 30 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiovascular disorders in chronic kidney disease)

There are limited data regarding the use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEi/ARBs) in acute heart failure (AHF). The purpose is to determine the patterns of ACEi/ARB use at the time of admission and discharge in relation to invasive hemodynamic data, mortality, and heart failure (HF) readmissions. This is a retrospective single-center study in patients with AHF who underwent right heart catheterization between January 2010 and December 2016. Patients on dialysis, evidence of shock, or incomplete follow up were excluded. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the factors associated with continuation of ACEi/ARB use on discharge and its relation to mortality and HF readmissions. The final sample was 626 patients. Patients on ACEi/ARB on admission were most likely continued on discharge. The most common reasons for stopping ACEi/ARB were worsening renal function (WRF), hypotension, and hyperkalemia. Patients with ACEi/ARB use on admission had a significantly higher systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP), but lower cardiac index (CI). Patients with RA pressures above the median received less ACEi/ARB (P = 0.025) and had significantly higher inpatient mortality (P = 0.048). After multivariate logistic regression, ACEi/ARB use at admission was associated with less inpatient mortality; OR 0.32 95% CI (0.11 to 0.93), and this effect extended to the subgroup of patients with HFpEF. Patients discharged on ACEi/ARB had significantly less 6-month HF readmissions OR 0.69 95% CI (0.48 to 0.98). ACEi/ARB use on admission for AHF was associated with less inpatient mortality including in those with HFpEF.

Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors
Angiotensin receptor blockers
Acute heart failure
Invasive hemodynamic parameters
Fig. 1.
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