Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is a very common clinical problem. Its prevalence is increasing with aging of the population. A diverse group of risk factors and etiologies comprise the HFpEF syndrome. No specific therapies have been shown to improve survival for the vast majority of HFpEF cases. Restrictive cardiomyopathies account for a significant portion of HFpEF patients and are characterized by diastolic dysfunction due to infiltration of the myocardium or ventricular hypertrophy. Many of these restrictive diseases occur in the context of myocardial infiltration by other substances such as amyloid, iron or glycogen or endomyocardial fibrosis. These infiltrative diseases usually have important clues in the clinical picture and on cardiac imaging that may allow differentiation from the usual HFpEF phenotype (that is commonly seen in the older, hypertensive patient). Noninvasive diagnosis has replaced endomyocardial biopsy for most instances in the workup of these conditions. Early recognition is important to institute specific therapies and to improve prognosis. In this review, we describe 4 major infiltrative cardiomyopathies (Cardiac Amyloidosis, Sarcoidosis, Hemochromatosis and Fabry disease), and their key imaging features.
Cite this article
Clinical evaluation of infiltrative cardiomyopathies resulting in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction
1 Infiltrative Cardiac Disease Program, Division of Cardiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2020, 21(2), 181–190; https://doi.org/10.31083/j.rcm.2020.02.65
Submitted: 21 April 2020 | Revised: 11 June 2020 | Accepted: 17 June 2020 | Published: 30 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heart failure pathogenesis and management:heart failure with preserved ejection fraction)