IMR Press / RCM / Volume 20 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm.2019.01.31812
Open Access Review
A short review of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors
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Department of Internal Medicine, King Fahd Hospital of the University, Alkhobar, College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University 31441, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2019, 20(1), 1–8;
Published: 30 March 2019

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, as estimated by the World Health Organization, where in 2016, 15.2 million deaths were attributed to ischemic heart disease and stroke. It is therefore essential to try to reduce the incidence of Cardiovascular disease by controlling modifiable risk factors. One such major modifiable risk factor is cholesterol, which influences the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis. Statins are often prescribed to lower blood levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol, thereby reducing the risk of Cardiovascular disease by approximately 25-35%. However, there is an increasing number of patients (in particular those with intolerance to statin therapy and those with familial hypercholesterolemia) for whom statin therapy alone is not enough to control low density lipoprotein cholesterol. In this review, the regulation of cholesterol metabolism will be discussed with an emphasis on novel cholesterol lowering drugs used in clinical trials. These second-generation drugs, monoclonal antibodies against the low density lipoprotein receptor gene known as proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors, are expected to be prescribed to patients who are intolerant to statins, as well as in conjunction with statins. Future perspectives of the clinical use of these drugs is also discussed.

Cardiovascular disease
proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors
Figure 1.
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