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Cite this article
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy–related Mechanisms of Endothelial and Platelet Function Alterations
1 Division of Internal and Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy
2 Department of Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2014, 15(S1), 9–20;
Published: 20 January 2014
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has transformed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection into a chronic condition, which has allowed the infected population to age and become prone to chronic degenerative diseases common to the general population, including atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and coronary artery disease (CAD). Possible causative mechanisms of HIV-associated CAD are related to classic cardiovascular risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and fat redistribution, which may be due to either HIV infection or to HAART-associated toxicity. However, other mechanisms are emerging as crucial for the cardiovascular complication of HIV and HAART. This article analyzes the effects of HIV and HAART on endothelial function, endothelium-leukocyte interactions, and platelets as possible mechanisms of enhanced cardiovascular risk.
Human immunodeficiency virus
Coronary artery disease
Highly active antiretroviral therapy