IMR Press / RCM / Volume 13 / Issue 4 / DOI: 10.3909/ricm0636

Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine (RCM) is published by IMR Press from Volume 19 Issue 1 (2018). Previous articles were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with MedReviews, LLC.

Open Access Review
The Complex Association Between Cardiac Disease and Kidney Dysfunction: Cardiorenal Syndrome, Contrast-Induced Nephropathy, and Cardiac Surgery-Associated Acute Kidney Injury
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1 Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2012, 13(4), 185–185;
Published: 30 December 2012
The heart supplies oxygen-rich blood to tissues and organs, and the kidneys need to be well perfused by the heart in order to function properly in their role of maintaining fluid and salt homeostasis; therefore, it is not surprising that there is an intricate relationship between these two organs. Many studies have examined the pathophysiology and treatment options for renal failure and heart failure as separate entities, but fewer studies have investigated them jointly. Furthermore, between the many subtypes of cardiorenal syndrome, the ambiguity of contrast-induced versus cardiac-induced nephropathy after invasive cardiac procedures, and the prevalence of concomitant cardiac and renal disease, there is a need for a broad collective review of cardiac and renal disease. This article examines the pathophysiology behind cardiorenal syndrome, contrast-induced nephropathy after invasive cardiac procedures, and acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery, together with the data supporting currently available prevention and treatment options.
Cardiorenal syndrome
Contrast-induced nephropathy
Acute kidney injury
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