IMR Press / JOMH / Volume 18 / Issue 8 / DOI: 10.31083/j.jomh1808176
Open Access Original Research
Gender Effects on Lower Limb Biomechanics of Novice Runners before and after a 5 km Run
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1 Faculty of Sports Science, Ningbo University, 315211 Ningbo, Zhejiang, China
2 Doctoral School on Safety and Security Sciences, Óbuda University, 1034 Budapest, Hungary
3 Faculty of Engineering, University of Szeged, 6724 Szeged, Hungary
*Correspondence: (Yaodong Gu)
J. Mens. Health 2022, 18(8), 176;
Submitted: 11 June 2022 | Revised: 11 July 2022 | Accepted: 13 July 2022 | Published: 12 August 2022
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Background: Gender has been considered as an influencing factor in the incidence of sports injuries. But few studies have discussed whether gender differences change after long-distance running. This study aimed at investigating whether the kinematic and ground reaction forces (GRFs) differences between males and females were altered by a 5 km run. Methods: Thirty novice runners (15 males and 15 females) with heel strikes were recruited for this study. In the test before and after the 5 km run, the participants were asked to run through the force plate with their right foot at a speed of 3.3 m/s ± 5%. Kinematics data and GRFs were collected synchronously. Each participant completed five successful running trials for further analysis of data. Results: Gender differences existed in ankle sagittal peak angle (pre: p = 0.059; post: p = 0.013), knee frontal peak angle (pre: p = 0.345; post: p = 0.014), knee horizontal nadir angle (pre: p = 0.056; post: p = 0.005), hip frontal nadir angle (pre: p = 0.103; post: p = 0.001) and peak lateral force (pre: p = 0.564; post: p = 0.001) after a 5 km run, but there were no gender differences before a 5 km run. Gender differences in the knee and hip movement in the frontal plane and horizontal plane and anterior-posterior GRFs changed obviously in the stance phase before and after a 5 km run. Conclusions: The gender difference in lower limb biomechanics during running is not constant. Differences change in peak angle, peak lateral force, knee and hip movement in the frontal plane and horizontal plane, and anterior-posterior GRFs between males and females were associated with the different incidence of running-related injuries, such as patellofemoral joint injuries, anterior cruciate ligament injury and iliotibial band syndrome, etc. These changes can give some concrete details to explore the different incidence rates of lower limb sports injuries between genders.

gender difference
lower limbs
long-distance running
19ZDA352/Major Program of the National Social Science Foundation of China
2021C03130/Key R&D Program of Zhejiang Province China
22NDQN223YB/Philosophy and Social Sciences Project of Zhejiang Province of China
2021S134/Public Welfare Science and Technology Project of Ningbo of China
R22A021199/Zhejiang Province Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars
ZX2021000448/Philosophy and Social Sciences Project of Zhejiang Province of China
Fig. 1.
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