IMR Press / JOMH / Volume 18 / Issue 8 / DOI: 10.31083/j.jomh1808168
Open Access Original Research
Gender, social stratification, and differences in sports participation among Korean adults: data from the 2019 Korea National Sports Participation Survey
Show Less
1 Department of Exercise Rehabilitation and Welfare, College of Health Science, Gachon University, 21936 Inchon, Republic of Korea
2 Department of Sport Coaching, College of Sport Science, Korea National Sport University, 05541 Seoul, Republic of Korea
*Correspondence: (Ik Young Chang)
J. Mens. Health 2022, 18(8), 168;
Submitted: 21 December 2021 | Revised: 21 January 2022 | Accepted: 24 January 2022 | Published: 8 August 2022
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Background: Sports participation is influenced by various factors. Among them, gender and social stratification are most relevant to the creation of a divide in sports participation. To date, studies have focused on the degree of sports participation (period, frequency, and intensity); the form of participation (behavioral, affective, and cognitive), and the type of sports participation according to gender and social stratification. Although gender and social stratification are inseparable factors in sports participation, little is known about the inequality in sports participation caused by both factors. Therefore, this study aims to examine how Korean men and women participate differently in sports according to their social stratification. Methods: Out of 9000 samples from the 2019 Korea National Sports Participation Survey (KNSPS) conducted by the Korean Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, data from 5366 individuals were analyzed in this study. SPSS 26.0 (IBM Corp., Chicago, IL, USA) was used to perform multiple correspondence analysis and cross-tabulation analysis. Results: This study found that for men, the lower the social stratification, the more frequent the participation in less capital-intensive sports (e.g., gateball, walking, and stretching exercises). Meanwhile, women tend to participate in sports such as aerobics, yoga, and dance sports. These are popularly referred to as “women’s sports” which evidences social stratification. Conclusions: This study reveals through national statistical indicators that there is a difference in the types of sports in which Korean men and women participate according to social stratification. Thus, gender and stratification inequalities may be inherent in the modern Korean society for sports participation.

social stratification
Korean adults
difference in sports participation
Fig. 1.
Back to top