IMR Press / JOMH / Volume 18 / Issue 7 / DOI: 10.31083/j.jomh1807151
Open Access Original Research
The Impact of Assisted Swimming on Front Crawl Performance
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1 Department of Health and Sports Sciences, Tokyo Gakugei University, 184-8501 Koganei, Tokyo, Japan
2 Department of Sports Science, Sendai University, 989-1693 Funaoka, Miyagi, Japan
3 Faculty of Education, Tokyo Gakugei University, 184-8501 Koganei, Tokyo, Japan
4 Graduate school of Education, Tokyo Gakugei University, 184-8501 Koganei, Tokyo, Japan
5 Department of Physical Education and Sports, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
6 Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences and Human Development, CIDESD, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
7 Department of Sports Sciences, Douro Higher Institute of Educational Sciences, 4560-708 Penafiel, Portugal
8 Department of Sports Sciences, University of Beira Interior, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
*Correspondence: (Shin-Ichiro Moriyama)
J. Mens. Health 2022, 18(7), 151;
Submitted: 13 January 2022 | Revised: 16 February 2022 | Accepted: 2 April 2022 | Published: 7 July 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Biomechanics for Health and Performance)
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Background: In the present study, we aimed to clarify the impact of the Assisted swim (A-swim; towing from propulsion direction) on front crawl performance at maximum and sub-maximum effort levels. Methods: Fourteen male collegiate swimmers (age, 21.0 ± 2.0 years; height, 1.73 ± 0.05 m; weight, 67.1 ± 7.1 kg) participated. Participants swam 25-m front crawl at maximal (Max) and submaximal intensity (Submax (80% of the max stroke rate (SR))) with and without an assist (assisted swimming with a towing device and normal swim (N-swim) without the device) for a total of four lengths. In addition to swim velocity (V), SR, and stroke length (SL), one stroke cycle was broken down into four phases—glide, pull, push, and recovery—and analyzed the duration of each phase. Results: A significant interaction of level of efforts and presence/absence of towing was confirmed in V, SR, and SL. V and SL showed a significant increase in A-swim compared to N-swim at both Max and Submax. SR was significantly higher in A-swim than in N-swim only at Max. Each phase of stroke showed a significant difference in recovery at Submax and push at Max. Conclusions: Despite considering the impact of propulsion from towing, A-swim increased SR, in addition to the V and SL, of swimmers compared with N-swim.

stroke rate
stroke length
Fig. 1.
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