IMR Press / JOMH / Volume 18 / Issue 6 / DOI: 10.31083/j.jomh1806131
Open Access Original Research
Gender Differences in Committing Suicide in Thailand
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1 Department of Healthcare Administration Specialty in Psychology, College of Medical and Health Science, Asia University, 41354 Taichung, Taiwan
2 Department of Psychology, College of Medical and Health Science, Asia University, 41354 Taichung, Taiwan
3 Department of Psychology, University of the Free State, 9301 Bloemfontein, South Africa
*Correspondence: (Karl Peltzer)
J. Mens. Health 2022, 18(6), 131;
Submitted: 9 January 2022 | Revised: 23 January 2022 | Accepted: 25 January 2022 | Published: 30 May 2022
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in suicide in Thailand. Methods: The observational investigation was carried out by scrutinizing existing historical data over a 25-year period, from 1994 to 2020. Data were obtained from the Thai Department of Mental Health and WHO cause of death data. We use the codes ICD-10 (X60-X84) to identify mortality due to different methods of suicide. Results: During a 25-year study period, the range of suicide rates per 100,000 people varied between 3.97–8.59, and the mean (standard deviation, SD) was 6.66 (0.99). Male rates were higher than female rates (t = 23.43; p < 0.001). The mean suicide rate (SD) for men was 10.44 (1.56) and 2.97 (0.56) in women. There were statistically significant differences between genders in terms of suicide rates among age groups (p < 0.001). Suicide rates were higher in men and in all those aged 20–59 years and 60 years and older. Age 30–39 years were the majority group of the suicide rate, the mean (SD) was 9.99 (2.21), 16.82 (3.89) in men, and 3.17 (0.60) in women. The most common means of suicide during the study period is hanging (62.32%); it also has an increasing trend each year in both men and women. Followed by pesticide poisoning (20.66%), and unspecified means (7.70%). Hanging, pesticides, gun and firearm, and drug overdose were found to be the highest incidence in men between 20 and 39 years of age. The incidence rate of suicide was found to be higher in men in all suicide methods with gender ratios 6:1. Gun and firearm were the highest proportion of means of completed suicides in males (15:1), followed by sharp objects, other specified means, and alcohol suicide (the same ratio 6:1). Conclusions: Compared to women, in all ages, men have a higher rate of completing suicide. Several suicide completers employed violent means of self-harm that were impossible to rescue, especially hanging, guns, and firearms, and jumping from high places. Therefore, suicide screening and suicide monitoring systems need to be advocated and implemented on a regular basis.

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