IMR Press / JOMH / Volume 18 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.31083/jomh.2021.136
Open Access Review
Seasonal variations in vascular endothelial function and physical activity in men
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1 Faculty of Rehabilitation, Shijonawate Gakuen University, 574-0011 Daito, Japan
2 Department of Rehabilitation, Toyooka Hospital, 668-8501 Toyooka, Japan
J. Mens. Health 2022, 18(2), 47;
Submitted: 24 August 2021 | Accepted: 19 October 2021 | Published: 10 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lifestyle modifications for men with hypertension)
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Vascular endothelial function, which plays an important independent role in the onset of cardiovascular disease, often changes seasonally, with functional deterioration generally occurring during the winter. Physical activity is necessary for preventing cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, as it improves vascular endothelial and metabolic function; however, the amount of physical activity an individual gets also varies with the seasons. Changes in physical activity may induce seasonal variations in vascular endothelial function, although this hypothesis remains unconfirmed. An individual’s sex can also affect their vascular endothelial function, habitual physical activity, and hormonal and metabolic function. Men have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease compared to women; therefore, clarifying the impact of physical activity on vascular endothelial function and its seasonality is important for managing men’s health. The purpose of this article is to review the association between seasonal variations in vascular endothelial function and physical activity in men.

Vascular endothelial function
Physical activity
Seasonal variation
Hormonal function
Metabolic function
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