IMR Press / JOMH / Volume 16 / Issue 4 / DOI: 10.31083/jomh.v16i4.214

Journal of Men’s Health (JOMH) is published by IMR Press from Volume 17 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Dougmar Publishing Group.



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1 Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea
2 Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, Hwaseong, Republic of Korea
3 Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

J. Mens. Health 2020, 16(4), 121–132;
Submitted: 24 December 2019 | Accepted: 9 October 2020 | Published: 5 November 2020

Background and objective

Many men tend to desire a larger penis than women want because it symbolizes masculinity and sexual prowess. Micropenis is a normally developed penis with at least 2.5 standard deviations below the mean size in stretched length for age. Unlike micropenis, small penis syndrome (SPS) refers to uncomfortable feelings about one’s penis size, even though penis size does not fall within the micropenis category. Some men seriously worry or feel ashamed of their penis size, and they may meet the diagnosis criteria of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). Unlike micropenis, the differential diagnosis of BDD is very important, because it is associated with high rates of committing suicide. In particular, when combined with BDD, it is known that poor outcomes after cosmetic interventions are expected. Several validated assessment tools are available to differentiate SPS and the degree of BDD, but they are still controversial. Furthermore, many physicians are performing cosmetic interventions on patients who have not been fully assessed and counseled by a psychologist, thereby leading to unsatisfactory results. Therefore, we aimed to clarify the definition of disease for penis size and review its diagnosis and treatment. This will be helpful both for physicians to enable them to provide adequate counseling and treatment and for patients to help them avoid unsatisfactory treatment.

body dysmorphic disorder
penile augmentation
small penis syndrome
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