IMR Press / JOMH / Volume 14 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.22374/1875-6859.14.2.5

Journal of Men’s Health (JOMH) is published by IMR Press from Volume 17 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Dougmar Publishing Group.

Original Research

Validation of a Questionnaire that Surveys Confidence in Sports among Korean Competitive Athletes

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1 College of Sport Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea
2 Physical Education Section, Korean National Police University, Asan, Republic of Korea
3 Korea Institute of Sport Science, Korea Sports Promotion Foundation, Seoul, Republic of Korea

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

J. Mens. Health 2018, 14(2), 30–41;
Submitted: 22 December 2017 | Accepted: 3 April 2018 | Published: 24 April 2018

Background and Objective

This study aimed to verify the validity of a questionnaire that surveys confidence in sports among athletes in combat sports. The questionnaire addresses the concepts of persistence, calmness, hesitation, and physical prime.

Material and Methods

Purposeful sampling using non-probability sampling was conducted in 367 players participating in university- and business-level athletics in the Republic of Korea. The data were analyzed using a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis and a second confirmatory factor analysis with linear structural relations (LISREL) version 8.5. Concept reliability and average variance extracted (AVE) values were calculated using Excel 2010 (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA, USA). Two-way (2×2) randomized group (RG) analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted using the SPSS 18.0 program (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA).


We proved that the sub-factors measured by the survey questions were relatively exact regarding self-confidence in combat-sport athletes. The questions relating to self-confidence in sports could be applied to both male and female athletes alike. The scores were higher in male athletes than in female athletes in the following factors: fighting spirit, calmness, and performing under pressure. The scores of the national ath-letes were higher compared to those of the non-national athletes with respect to the body preparation factor.


These results suggest that the competitive sports questionnaire developed in a previous study could be utilized without difficulty in a confidence-related study of competitive sports athletes. The questionnaire is particularly effective in evaluating the confidence level of athletes.

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