Academic Editor: Masato Nakafuku
Traumatic central nervous system (CNS) injury often causes irreversible impairment, and new alternative therapies for the treatment of CNS injury and sequelae are expected to be developed. Recently, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have started being used as cell therapy for neurological disorders such as traumatic CNS injury based on their immunomodulatory, neuroprotective, and neurorestorative abilities. Based on the premise of basic research, numerous clinical trials using MSCs for the treatment of traumatic CNS injury have been performed, and the feasibility and efficacy of this therapy have been reported. In this review we aimed to shed light on the characteristics of MSCs and to discuss the basic and clinical research and recent progress in clinical studies using MSCs to treat various traumatic neurological injuries.