IMR Press / JIN / Volume 20 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.31083/j.jin2003075
Open Access Brief Report
Brain multimodality monitoring in patients suffering from acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: clinical value and complications
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1 Department of Anesthesiology, University Medical Center Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
2 Department of Neurosurgery, University Medical Center Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
*Correspondence: (Martin Kieninger)
J. Integr. Neurosci. 2021, 20(3), 703–710;
Submitted: 17 April 2021 | Revised: 20 May 2021 | Accepted: 7 July 2021 | Published: 30 September 2021
Copyright: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license (

Brain multimodality monitoring measuring brain tissue oxygen pressure, cerebral blood flow, and cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy may help optimize the neurocritical care of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and delayed cerebral ischemia. We retrospectively looked for complications associated with the placement of the probes and checked the reliability of the different tools used for multimodality monitoring. In addition, we screened for therapeutic measures derived in cases of pathological values in multimodality monitoring in 26 patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Computed tomography scans showed minor hemorrhage along with the probes in 12 patients (46.2%). Missing transmission of values was observed in 34.1% of the intended time of measurement for cerebral blood flow probes and 15.5% and 16.2%, respectively, for the two kinds of probes measuring brain tissue oxygen pressure. We identified 744 cumulative alarming values transmitted from multimodality monitoring. The most frequent intervention was modifying minute ventilation (29%). Less frequent interventions were escalating the norepinephrine dosage (19.9%), elevating cerebral perfusion pressure (14.9%) or inspiratory fraction of inspired oxygen (7.5%), transfusing red blood cell concentrates (1.2%), initiating further diagnostics (2.3%) and neurosurgical interventions (1.9%). As well, 355 cases of pathological values had no therapeutic consequence. The reliability of the measuring tools for multimodality monitoring regarding a continuous transmission of values must be improved, particularly for cerebral blood flow monitoring. The overall high rate of missing therapeutic responses to pathological values derived from multimodality monitoring in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage underlines the need for structured tiered algorithms. In addition, such algorithms are the basic requirement for prospective multicenter studies, which are urgently needed to evaluate the role of multimodality monitoring in treating these patients.

Brain multimodality monitoring
Invasive neuromonitoring
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage
Brain tissue oxygen (PbtO2
Cerebral blood flow (CBF)
Cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (cNIRS)
Neurocritical care
Fig. 1.
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