† These authors contributed equally.
Executive processes that predominantly effect people living with human immunodeficiency virus remain to be understood. In the present case-control study, components summarizing executive functions were empirically determined to clarify the nature of executive difficulties observed in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus. One hundred and five seropositive and 62 seronegative healthy adults without comorbidities underwent a comprehensive executive function assessment. Test data were reduced via principal components analysis and component scores were used to investigate whether seropositive adults exhibit selective difficulties in specific executive processes. A three-component solution was found, consisting of updating, inhibition and set-shifting. Group differences between seropositive and seronegative participants were observed only in the updating component. In the present exploratory analyses, significant findings emerged that suggest a selective executive impairment associated with the updating/working memory process in young to middle adulthood seropositive individuals without comorbidities.