This research explores ultrastructural changes of arachnoid granulations associated with hydrocephalus after subarachnoid hemorrhage in cynomolgus monkeys. It provides a theoretical basis for further study of the etiology and prevention of hydrocephalus. Female cynomolgus monkeys about one-year-old were selected. The position range of arachnoid granulations in superior sagittal sinus and transverse sinus was determined in a randomly selected control monkey. The morphology of normal arachnoid granulations in cynomolgus monkeys was observed under a transmission electron microscope. A primate model of subarachnoid hemorrhage was established by injecting autologous blood into cisterna magna. Vomiting, movement disorder, and reduced level of consciousness were gradually observed in monkeys. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scan results confirmed subarachnoid hemorrhage and hydrocephalus, and the morphology of arachnoid granulations in hydrocephalus was observed under a transmission electron microscope. Extensive fibrosis of arachnoid granulations was observed under a transmission electron microscope in cynomolgus monkeys with hydrocephalus after subarachnoid hemorrhage.