IMR Press / JIN / Volume 20 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.31083/j.jin.2021.01.284
Open Access Review
Extrasynaptic δ-subunit containing GABAA receptors
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1 School of Advanced Studies, University of Tyumen, 9 Marta Street 2k1, 625000 Tyumen, Russia
J. Integr. Neurosci. 2021, 20(1), 173–184; https://doi.org/10.31083/j.jin.2021.01.284
Submitted: 17 September 2020 | Revised: 18 October 2020 | Accepted: 1 February 2021 | Published: 30 March 2021
Abstract

γ-Aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs) are GABA gated heteropentameric chloride channels responsible for the adult brain’s primary inhibition. In specific brain cells, such as in the hippocampus, one of the subtypes of GABAARs, the δ subunit containing GABAARs (δ-GABAARs), is predominantly expressed and located in extrasynaptic or perisynaptic positions. δ-GABAARs mediate a slow constant inhibitory current called tonic inhibition. While δ-GABAARs and tonic inhibition is critical for the excitability of single neurons, accumulating data suggest that the function of δ-GABAARs are broader and includes an integrative role in the network oscillations. While these open new horizons on the neurobiology of δ-GABAARs, the complexity continues to challenge the analysis of GABAARs and their subtypes. This review will summarize the current knowledge of molecular, cellular and physiological characteristics of δ-GABAARs during health and disease.

Keywords
GABA
Inhibition
Tonic
Phasic
Synaptic
Extrasynaptic
Cys-loop receptors
δ-subunit
GABA(A) receptor
GABA receptor
Ion channel
GABRD
Hippocampus
Dentate gyrus
GABAergic interneurons
Granule cells
Epilepsy
Anxiety
Postpartum
Depression
Figures
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