IMR Press / JIN / Volume 18 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.31083/j.jin.2019.01.14
Open Access Original Research
Intracortical microstimulation parameters modulate flight behavior in pigeon
Kun Zhao1,2Hong Wan1,2,*Zhigang Shang1,2Xinyu Liu1,2,3Lu Liu1,2
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1 School of Electrical Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450000, China
2 Henan Key Laboratory of Brain Science and Brain-Computer Interface Technology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450000, China
3 School of Information Engineering, Huanghuai University, Zhumadian, 463000, China
*Correspondence: (Hong Wan)
J. Integr. Neurosci. 2019, 18(1), 23–32;
Submitted: 27 January 2019 | Accepted: 26 March 2019 | Published: 30 March 2019
Copyright: © 2019 Zhao et al. Published by IMR press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license (

Pigeons have a natural affinity for travel by flight. Researchers have recently achieved modulation of pigeon locomotor behaviour by intracortical microstimulation. However, there is a lack of research focused on the analysis of microstimulations parameters in the control of pigeon flight. Here, chronic microelectrode implantation technology is employed to establish a model for evaluation of the effects of pigeon flight modulation. Furthermore, three stimulation parameters are compared (amplitude, frequency, and duty ratio) and analyzed as to how they and their interactions affect the flight of pigeons. Results show that microstimulation of the pigeon formation reticularis medialis mesencephali area has significant effects on modulation of pigeon flight and there is a significant non-linear correlation between the stimulation parameters employed and modulation of the flight trajectory. Additionally, we found that the amplitude interacts with both frequency and duty ratio. These results indicate that the flight trajectory of a pigeon can be modulated by alterations made to microstimulation parameters.

Intracortical microstimulation
stimulation parameters
Figure 1.
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