IMR Press / FBS / Volume 5 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.2741/S405

Frontiers in Bioscience-Scholar (FBS) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review

Causes and consequences of low grade endotoxemia and inflammatory diseases

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1 Laboratory of Innate Immunity and Inflammation, Department of Biological Science,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24060, USA

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Academic Editor: Chuanfu Li

Front. Biosci. (Schol Ed) 2013, 5(2), 754–765; https://doi.org/10.2741/S405
Published: 1 January 2013
Abstract

Increasing clinical observations reveal that persistent low-grade inflammation is associated with the pathogenesis of severe chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and aging-related neurological diseases. Intriguingly, low levels of circulating Gramnegative bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) appear to be one of the key culprits in provoking a nonresolving low-grade inflammation. Adverse life styles, chronic infection, and aging can all contribute to the rise of circulating endotoxin levels and lead to low-grade endotoxemia. As a consequence, low-grade endotoxemia may skew host immune environment into a mild nonresolving pro-inflammatory state, which eventually leads to the pathogenesis and progression of inflammatory diseases. This review aims to highlight the recent progress in the causes and consequences of low-grade endotoxemia, as well as the emerging molecular mechanisms responsible.

Keywords
Low Grade Inflammation
Endotoxemia
Chronic Diseases
Mechanisms
Review
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