IMR Press / FBS / Volume 5 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.2741/S387

Frontiers in Bioscience-Scholar (FBS) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Chemical warfare agent detection: a review of current trends and future perspective
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1 Smiths Detection, 27 Drydock Avenue, 8th floor, Boston, MA 02210,2Ocean NanoTech LLC, 2143 Worth Lane, Springdale AR 72764, USA

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Academic Editor: Zoraida P. Aguilar

Front. Biosci. (Schol Ed) 2013, 5(2), 516–543;
Published: 1 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano and bio sensors)

The World Health Organization recommends countries to create a public health system that can respond to the deliberate release of chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Procedures for preparedness, response, decontamination protocols and medical countermeasures against CWA attacks are described. Known CWAs, including their properties and pharmacological consequences upon exposure, are tabulated and discussed. Requirements imposed on detection systems by various applications and environmental needs are presented in order to assess the devices for detection and identification of specific CWAs. The review surveys current and nearterm detection technologies and equipments, as well as devices that are currently available to the military and civilian first responders. Brief technical discussions of several detection technologies are presented, with emphasis placed in the principles of detection. Finally, enabling technologies that form the basis for advanced sensing systems and devices are described.

Chemical warfare agents
chemical detectors
Non-traditional agents
binary Chemicals
Nerve Agents
Riot-Control Agents
Incapacitating Agents
Blood Agents
Blistering Agents
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