IMR Press / FBS / Volume 5 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/S360

Frontiers in Bioscience-Scholar (FBS) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Review
The role of innate signals in B cell immunity to influenza virus
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1 Graduate Group in Immunology and Center for Comparative Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
Front. Biosci. (Schol Ed) 2013, 5(1), 105–117; https://doi.org/10.2741/S360
Published: 1 January 2013
Abstract

Decades of research on mammalian immunity to influenza virus infection have thoroughly established the important contributions made by both the innate and adaptive responses in containing the infection, and in eliminating the virus and protecting from reinfection, respectively. While rapid non-specific innate response is functionally distinct from, yet elegantly complementary to, the delayed-but-specific adaptive response, an increasing number of studies have provided evidence suggesting signals generated during the early innate response can have a significant impact on the quality of the later adaptive response, particularly in the context of influenza virus infection. From these findings emerged the notion that certain innate signals can act directly on B cells, and that this can even help activate virus specific B cells independent of T cell help, marking a major shift away from the current two-signal paradigm of lymphocyte activation. Here we review the current understanding of early B cell responses to influenza virus infection and the role of innate signals (particularly IFN-I and TLR7) in shaping this response.

Keywords
Influenza
Virus
Infection
Respiratory tract
Hemaglutanin
HA
B-lymphocytes
B cells
Innate
Humoral
antibody
Immunoglobulin
Isotype
Ig
IgG
IgM
Toll-like receptor
MyD88
TLR7
TLR3
TLR9
Type-I interferon
IFN-alpha
IFN-beta
Cell cycle
Systemic lupus erythmatosis
SLE
Pathogen associated molecular pattern
PAMP
RIG-I
RIG-I like receptor
RLR
NOD-like receptor
NLR
CD80
CD86
CD69
Plasmacytoid dendritic cell
pDC
Mediastinal lymph node
Bronchus associated lymphoid tissue
BALT
Lung
Review
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