IMR Press / FBS / Volume 4 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/s252

Frontiers in Bioscience-Scholar (FBS) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review

Intranasal treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and stroke

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1 Department of Clinical Neurosciences and The Hotchkiss Brain Institute, The University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
2 Alzheimer’s Research Center at Regions Hospital, HealthPartners Research Foundation, St. Paul, Minnesota 55101

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Academic Editor: Feng Zhang

Front. Biosci. (Schol Ed) 2012, 4(1), 74–89; https://doi.org/10.2741/s252
Published: 1 January 2012
Abstract

Although the blood–brain barrier (BBB) restricts access to the central nervous system (CNS) for the use of systemically administered therapies, an alternative approach, the non-invasive method of intranasal delivery, can rapidly target delivery of molecules to the CNS. Intranasal delivery has the distinct advantages of circumventing the BBB while minimizing systemic exposure. This novel approach to treating neurological illnesses will be examined in detail in this review. We will review current understanding of the mechanisms underlying intranasal delivery to the CNS, along with discussion of pathways permitting entry from the nasal cavity into the CNS, particularly those involving the olfactory and trigeminal nerves. Significant preclinical research has been performed to develop and improve our current approaches to intranasal treatments. We will examine the evidence behind the use of intranasal delivery in chronic neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s Disease and diabetes-mediated cerebral degeneration, as well as in acute conditions such as stroke.

Keywords
Intranasal
Alzheimer’s Disease
Dementia
Neurodegenerative
Diabetes
Stroke
Review
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