IMR Press / FBS / Volume 2 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.2741/S109

Frontiers in Bioscience-Scholar (FBS) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Fetal heart failure
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1 Fetal and Neonatal Cardiology Program, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
2 Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Academic Editor: Consolato Sergi

Front. Biosci. (Schol Ed) 2010, 2(3), 891–906;
Published: 1 June 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progresses in heart failure diagnosis and treatment)

Clinical fetal heart failure occurs in conditions associated with increasing left and right atrial filling and/or central venous pressures and manifests as right heart failure with the development of pericardial and pleural effusions, ascites and peripheral and placental edema. Fetal heart failure may occur in primary myocardial disease, in presence of the extracardiac pathology impacting the loading conditions of the fetal heart and in conditions associated with secondary myocardial dysfunction including structural heart defects, bradycardia or tachycardia. This review summarizes recent literature of the understanding of the normal fetal circulation and the pathogenic mechanisms responsible for the evolution of fetal heart failure, strategies for fetal and perinatal management of fetal heart failure, and future directions that may lead to novel strategies to treat affected pregnancies and improve associated perinatal morbidity and mortality.

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