IMR Press / FBS / Volume 2 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.2741/S89

Frontiers in Bioscience-Scholar (FBS) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
Genetic risk factors and candidate biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease
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1 Department of Health Sciences, University of Molise, Campobasso, Italy
2 Department of Pathobiology and Biomedical Methodologies, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy
3 Department of Experimental and Applied Pharmacology, University of Pavia, Italy
4 Institute of Neurological Sciences, CNR, Catania, Italy
5 Department of Anatomy, Diagnostic Pathology, Legal Medicine, Hygiene and Public Health, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
6 Department of Biological Chemistry, Medical Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Catania, Italy
7 IRCCS Associazione Oasi Maria S.S., Institute for Research on Mental Retardation and Brain Aging, Troina (EN), Italy

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Academic Editor: Giovanni Li Volti

Front. Biosci. (Schol Ed) 2010, 2(2), 616–622; https://doi.org/10.2741/S89
Published: 1 January 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biochemical markers in biological fluids)
Abstract

Alzheimer's disease is a multifactorial and progressive neurodegenerative disease, extremely diffused and with an increasing prevalence worldwide. There is an urgent need for biomarkers to diagnose AD early in its course. Furthermore, accurate biomarkers would be able to determine the clinical efficacy of novel neuroprotective strategies. Although the heritability of late-onset AD is high, our knowledge of the underlying putative susceptibility genes remains incomplete and the only unequivocally established late-onset AD gene is APOE. Nevertheless a number of susceptibility loci seems to influence the pathogenesis of AD, and variations in numerous genes have been considered to be important in the risk for AD. Many advances have been made in identifying biochemical indices of brain dysfunction, measured in body fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and plasma, with different methodological approaches. Although these biomarkers are promising, none of them can predict AD with 100% confidence to date. This review will elaborate on the available selection of genetic and biochemical biomarkers for AD, with a particular reference to those linked to inflammation and oxidative stress.

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