IMR Press / FBS / Volume 2 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.2741/S79

Frontiers in Bioscience-Scholar (FBS) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
Bone remodeling, humoral networks and smart biomaterial technology for osteoporosis
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1 Laboratory of Surgical and Preclinical Studies, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Bologna, Italy
2 Specialized Centre “Preclinical Studies on Innovative Technological and Therapeutical Strategies”, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Bologna Italy
3 Department of Reproduction and Ageing, University of Pisa, Italy
4 Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pisa, Italy
5 Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Bone Disease, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, Usa,6 Chair of Surgical Pathophysiology, University of Bologna Italy

Academic Editor: Angelo Carpi

Front. Biosci. (Schol Ed) 2010, 2(2), 468–482; https://doi.org/10.2741/S79
Published: 1 January 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in bone disease pathophisiology and management)
Abstract

One of the unfortunate sequelae of increased life expectancy is a growing number of age-related degenerative diseases, a prime example being osteoporosis. This form of metabolic bone disease and related co-morbidities consume tremendous resources and costs from a nation's health care system. Osteoporosis results from genetic, age-related, and hormone-dependent causes as well as a compendium of secondary pathophysiological states. The presence of osteoporosis as a comorbidity confers a significant negative prognostic element following orthopedic procedures. In vitro and in vivo studies of osteoporotic bone implicate microarchitectural bone rarefaction, microenvironmental and functional disturbance of osteoblast-osteoclast coupling, and abnormal tissue and signalling molecule repertoires, each having detrimental effects on the regenerative and osteointegration processes. This review explores the pathophysiology of bone remodeling from a macro- and micro- systems biology standpoint with a focus on cytokine interactions. Furthermore, therapeutic interventions exploiting vulnerable nodes in these physiological networks will be posited. One exciting development in this area is the use of novel biomaterials.

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