IMR Press / FBS / Volume 1 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/S31

Frontiers in Bioscience-Scholar (FBS) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

The use of hormonal therapy in pediatric heart disease
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1 University of Minnesota Amplatz Children's Hospital, 516 Delaware St. S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
2 Children's Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota, 345 No. Smith Ave., St. Paul, MN 55102, USA
3 Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, 8440 - 112 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2B7
4 Institute of Pathology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Muellerstrasse 44, Innsbruck, Austria

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Academic Editor: Consolato Sergi

Front. Biosci. (Schol Ed) 2009, 1(1), 358–375;
Published: 1 June 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progresses in heart failure diagnosis and treatment)

The endocrine system plays an intricate role in the regulation and modulation of cardiovascular function. Several hormones including thyroid, mineralocorticoid, glucocorticoid, arginine-vasopressin (AVP), and growth hormone (GH) have been investigated as adjunctive therapies in pediatric cardiac disease. Thyroid hormone supplementation appears to be safe in neonatal and pediatric post-operative cardiac patients, but the benefits have been modest and inconsistent. Glucocorticoids appear to decrease the inflammatory response associated with cardiopulmonary bypass in children, but have little effect on clinical outcomes. The role of AVP in pediatric shock remains limited due to inconsistent trial results and its potential side effect profile. Although mineralcorticoids are commonly used to treat neurocardiogenic syncope, little to no benefit has been demonstrated in controlled trials. GH normalizes altered cardiac function in children who are GH deficient, but its effectiveness in the treatment of heart failure has been variable. Overall, the use of these hormones in a variety of pediatric cardiac conditions generally appears to be safe, but their efficacy for relieving symptoms, improving cardiac function, and improving clinical outcomes remains unclear.

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