Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is any stage of glucose intolerance initially or first recognized during pregnancy. GDM is due to reduced insulin sensitivity or increased insulin resistance in the pregnant woman's body. Undocumented or uncontrolled GDM can have severe consequences for the mother and child. International Diabetes Federation estimates that approximately 22 million pregnant women during the year 2017 were exposed to some form of hyperglycemia during pregnancy, which is about 16.8% of live-born children from these pregnancies. As with other forms of diabetes, incidence during pregnancy is also associated with age. Almost every fourth, i.e., 23% of pregnant women over 35, is burdened with GDM. The T2DM rate is steadily increasing, preventive measures are limited, as it is most commonly after six weeks of birth that it completely forgets the control of this already-identified risk group of women, and these women are in the physicians' focus during succeeding pregnancy.
However, the energetic debate about the value of detecting and treating GDM lasts until today while the issue was whether the unfavorable perinatal outcomes in pregnancies of women with hyperglycemia less than diagnostic of diabetes mellitus are independently associated with maternal glycemia or attributable to more significant obesity, higher maternal age, more urinary tract infections, or social disadvantages. The second challenge was whether treating hyperglycemia in women with GDM actually reduced adverse outcomes.
Prof. Dr. Marina Ivanišević
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