Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Regulation of cell surface expression of voltage-dependent Nav1.7 sodium channels: mRNA stability and posttranscriptional control in adrenal chromaffin cells
Regulated expression of Na+ channels is indispensable to physiological events, whereas dysregulated expression of otherwise silent or even normal Na+ channel isoforms causes Na+ channelopathies; however, the regulatory mechanisms remain unknown. In quiescent cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, constitutive phosphorylation/activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 (ERK1) and ERK2 destabilized Nav l.7 Na+ channel alpha-subunit mRNA and decreased its level without altering alpha-subunit gene transcription, thus negatively regulating steady-state level of Na+ channels. Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) down-regulated Na+ channels via PKC isoform-specific mechanisms; conventional PKC-alpha promoted endocytic internalization of Na+ channels, whereas novel PKC-epsilon destabilized alpha-subunit mRNA without altering its gene transcription. Long-lasting (but not short-term) increase of cytoplasmic Ca2+ down-regulated Na+ channels; a slowly-developing moderate increase of Ca2+ activated PKC-alpha and calpain, promoting internalization of Na+ channels, whereas an immediate monophasic and salient plateau increase of Ca2+ lowered alpha- and beta1-subunit mRNA levels. Calcineurin, or FK506 binding protein- and rapamycin-associated protein (FRAP), a serine/threonine protein kinase, down-regulated, whereas insulin receptor tyrosine kinase or protein kinase A (PKA) up-regulated, Na+ channels via modulating Na+ channel internalization, and/or Na+ channel externalization from the trans-Golgi network. Neuroprotective, antiepiletic, antipsychotic, and local anesthetic drugs up-regulated Na+ channels via transcriptional/translational events.