IMR Press / FBL / Volume 9 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/1218

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
Noninvasive diagnosis of acute rejection of solid organ transplants
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1 The Rogosin Institute, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, 525 East 68th Street, Box 102, New York, NY 10021
2 Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Department of Transplantation Medicine, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, NewYork Weill Cornell Medical Center, 525 East 68th Street, Box 3, New York, NY 10021
Academic Editor:Rakesh Sindhi
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2004, 9(1), 145–153; https://doi.org/10.2741/1218
Published: 1 January 2004
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunemodulation and immunosuppressants)
Abstract

Accurate diagnosis of acute rejection remains a formidable challenge in organ transplantation. The current gold standard diagnostic test for acute rejection is histological examination of the transplanted organ. However, biopsy procedures are invasive and complications occur. Furthermore, sampling errors may bias the histological diagnosis. Not uncommonly, empiric anti-rejection therapy has to be provided prior to the availability of a confirmatory histological report. Thus, there is an urgent need for specific and sensitive noninvasive biomarkers of acute rejection. Herein, we review noninvasive strategies for the diagnosis of acute rejection of solid organ transplants.

Keywords
Kidney
Lung
Liver
Heart
Rejection
mRNA
Immunity
Immune system
Transplant
Transplantation
Review
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