Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Academic Editor: William Okulicz
The endometrial response to the varying levels of ovarian steroids is exhibited as alterations in its form and function. These changes in endometrial morphology and physiology, especially those observed during the implantation window are prerequisites to support embryo attachment and invasion. However the state of endometrial receptivity to embryo results from an operative network of several molecular events triggered by estrogen, progesterone and probably some other factors, yet to be discovered. It is well established that estrogen and progesterone are the critical endocrine determinants of endometrial functions. However the precise delineation of hormone driven events and their interaction is yet to be ascertained. Several attempts have been made to understand these cascades, however most of these studies have been conducted in vitro using one or the other component of endometrial tissues. We have attempted to investigate in vivo morphological and biochemical/molecular changes in endometrium in response to neutralization of progesterone synthesis/ function in two primate animal models. In one of the models, ovariectomized rhesus monkeys, artificial menstrual cycles were simulated and subsequent effects on the _expression of various genes were investigated in presence and absence of sufficient progesterone levels. The results coincided with those observed in the endometrium of the other model, bonnet monkeys presenting normal hypothalamus-ovarian-pituitary function but displaying retarded endometrial growth due to blocked progesterone receptor. A significant decline was observed in the expression of transforming growth factor beta, transforming growth factor beta receptor, leukaemia inhibitory factor, whereas no remarkable changes were observed in the expression of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptors in response to neutralization of progesterone synthesis/function in these two animal models. Taking support from the inferences drawn from previously published in vitro studies and our data from in vivo studies conducted in these two models, we propose a hypothesis supporting a potential link between the expressions of transforming growth factor beta, leukaemia inhibitory factor, cyclooxygenases and integrins.