IMR Press / FBL / Volume 8 / Issue 6 / DOI: 10.2741/1119

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
Citrate and mineral metabolism: kidney stones and bone disease
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1 Department of Internal Medicine and Applied Biotechnology, D. Campanacci University of Bologna. Italy

Academic Editor: Saeed Khan

Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2003, 8(6), 1084–1106;
Published: 1 September 2003
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kidney stones; their formation, removal and prevention)

Citrate is a weak acid that is formed in the tricarboxylic acid cycle or that may be introduced with diet. In the present paper all the mechanisms involved in intestinal absorption, renal handling and modulation of citrate will be reviewed. The evaluation of plasma citric acid is scarcely used in the diagnosis of human diseases. On the contrary urinary citrate excretion is a common tool in the differential diagnosis of kidney stones, renal tubular acidosis and it plays also a role in bone diseases. Therefore the importance of hypocitraturia will be reviewed with regard to bone mass, urine crystallization and urolithiasis. Finally particular attention will be paid to the incidence of hypocitraturia and to the therapy with citrate salts, both in kidney stone disease and in osteopenia.

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