IMR Press / FBL / Volume 7 / Issue 5 / DOI: 10.2741/sharp

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
Bladder cancer detection with urinary survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis
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1 Departments of Surgery (Section of Urology) and Pathology ( Boyer Center for Molecular Medicine), Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut

Academic Editor: JianYu Rao

Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2002, 7(5), 36–41; https://doi.org/10.2741/sharp
Published: 1 February 2002
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor markers for bladder cancer early detection)
Abstract

The current "gold standard" for the diagnosis of bladder cancer is cystoscopy and urine cytology. Cystoscopy, a naked eye assessment of the bladder, is invasive, uncomfortable and costly while cytology has high specificity but low sensitivity (40-60%) particularly for low-grade lesions. Therefore, there is a need for a molecular tumor marker assay that is simple to perform and sensitive, particularly for low-grade lesions. By looking to the pathophysiology of bladder cancer, we identified survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis that is not generally expressed in fully differentiated adult tissue and is highly expressed in bladder cancer. Survivin is detected in whole urine of patients with TCC using a simple antibody based test. The sensitivity of survivin testing for new or recurrent bladder cancer is 100% while the specificity for other neoplastic and non-neoplastic genitourinary disease is 95%. The high sensitivity of this simple, noninvasive test is well suited to bladder cancer, a disease with high rates of recurrence.

Keywords
Survivin
Urothelial Cell Carcinoma
Tumor Markers
Apoptosis
Bladder Cancer Detection
Dot-Blot Method
Review
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