IMR Press / FBL / Volume 6 / Issue 4 / DOI: 10.2741/mcmurray

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
Sex hormones in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus
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1 Rheumatology Section, Medical Service, G.V. (Sonny) Montgomery VA Hospital, Jackson, Mississippi and Division of Rheumatology and Molecular Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 North State Street, Jackson, Mississippi

Academic Editor: Robert Hoffman

Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2001, 6(4), 193–206; https://doi.org/10.2741/mcmurray
Published: 1 December 2001
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus)
Abstract

Sex hormones – estrogens, progestins, androgens, and prolactin – have well-documented effects on the development, progression, or severity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). These effects are complex and are confounded by in vitro and in vivo considerations that obscure a simple explanation of the sexual dichotomies in SLE. An overview of available experimental and clinical data suggests that low androgens and abnormalities in the prolactin-gonadal axis are the most consistent hormonal aberrations found in human SLE. Additional studies focusing on interactions of gonadal steroids with prolactin and other pituitary hormones should expand our understanding of the role of sex hormones in the pathogenesis of SLE and strengthen the potential of hormonal immunotherapy.

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