IMR Press / FBL / Volume 5 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.2741/himelste

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
The neurobiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
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1 Neuropsychology Doctoral Subprogram, Department of Psychology, The Graduate Center of CUNY, 365 Fifth Avenue, NY, NY, 10016, USA
2 Neuropsychology Doctoral Subprogram, Department of Psychology, The Graduate Center of CUNY, 365 Fifth Avenue, NY, NY, 10016, USA
3 Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Mount Sinai Medical Center, One Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1230, NY, NY 10029, USA
4 Department of Psychology, Queens College of CUNY, 65-30 Kissena Blvd., Flushing, NY 11367, USA
Academic Editor:John Foxe
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2000, 5(3), 461–478; https://doi.org/10.2741/himelste
Published: 1 April 2000
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Congition and attention)
Abstract

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a childhood psychiatric disorder characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and overactivity. Considerable research has focused on the neurobiological substrates of this disorder. Although the specific nature of the brain dysfunction remains elusive, progress has been made and several models of the underlying pathophysiology have been suggested. Research in the fields of neuropsychology, neuroimaging, neurochemistry, and molecular genetics, which points to a multifactorial etiology for the disorder, is reviewed. While several inconsistencies exist across studies, evidence supports dysfunction of fronto-striatal dopaminergic and noradrenergic circuits with resultant executive deficits in cognitive functioning.

Keywords
Attention-Deficit
Hyperactivity Disorder
Neurobiology
Executive Functions
Fronto-Striatal Circuitry
Dopamine
Norepinephrine
Review
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