IMR Press / FBL / Volume 4 / Issue 4 / DOI: 10.2741/brushia

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
Phosphorylase kinase: the complexity of its regulation is reflected in the complexity of its structure
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1 Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd., MS1-260, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
2 Department of Med. Biol. Chem., University of California, Davis, 95616
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 1999, 4(4), 618–641; https://doi.org/10.2741/brushia
Published: 15 September 1999
Abstract

Intracellular glycogen stores are used to maintain blood-glucose homeostasis during fasting, are a source of energy for muscle contraction, and are used to support a broad range of cellular activities in most tissues. A diversity of signals accelerate glycogen degradation that are mediated by phosphorylase b kinase (Phk), which phosphorylates and thereby activates glycogen phosphorylase. Phk is among the most complex of the protein kinases so far elucidated. It has one catalytic (gamma) subunit and three different regulatory (alpha, beta, and delta) subunits, a molecular mass of 1.3 X 106 daltons, and each holoenzyme molecule is presumed to contain four molecules of each subunit. The three regulatory subunits inhibit the phosphotransferase activity of the gamma subunit. Ca2+ relieves inhibition via the delta subunit, which is identical to calmodulin but remains an integral component of the holoenzyme even when the [Ca2+] is lowered to nanomolar levels. Phosphorylation of the alpha and beta subunits by the 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) also relieves inhibition of the gamma subunit and thereby activates the enzyme. The stimulatory effects of Ca2+ and phosphorylation appear to be structurally coupled and are cooperative. In addition, Phk is activated in vitro by autophosphorylation, limited proteolysis of the regulatory subunits, and various allosteric effectors and these may also be mechanisms of physiological importance. The molecular mechanisms of regulation are currently poorly understood, but new insights are beginning to emerge. This review discusses current knowledge and concepts of the structure, function and regulation of Phk.

Keywords
Enzyme Regulation
Protein Kinases
Glycogen Metabolism
Endocrinology
Liver
Muscle
Signal Transduction
Phosphorylase
Phosphorylase Kinase
Review
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