Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
The liver injury caused by hepatotoxins is characterized by varying degrees of hepatocyte degeneration and cell death via either apoptosis or necrosis. Generation of reactive intermediate metabolites from the metabolism of toxins and the occurrence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the inflammatory reaction account for a variety of pathophysiologic pathways which lead to cell death. This process can then evoke acute or chronic inflammatory responses if the injury is sustained, and these pathologic alterations eventually progress to cirrhosis. Understanding the function of transcription factors, such as nuclear factor kappa?B (NF-kappa B), in acute liver injury may provide some answers to the molecular mechanisms of toxic insults. Liposomes have been used as vehicles for drug delivery and gene therapy and they have been shown to have substantial potential in the targeting of specific cell types of the liver. Thus, the use of liposomes may improve targeting efficacy in the treatment of a variety of liver diseases.