IMR Press / FBL / Volume 28 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.31083/j.fbl2801019
Open Access Original Research
Hybrid Nanoparticles of Manganese Oxide and Highly Reduced Graphene Oxide for Photodynamic Therapy
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1 Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, 11451 Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation, 27469 Chungju, Republic of Korea
3 Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, 11451 Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
4 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, 11451 Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
5 Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, King Saud University Medical City, 12372 Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
*Correspondence:; (Haseeb A. Khan)
Academic Editor: Peter Brenneisen
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2023, 28(1), 19;
Submitted: 15 October 2022 | Revised: 13 December 2022 | Accepted: 15 December 2022 | Published: 18 January 2023
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent advances in cancer therapeutics)
Copyright: © 2023 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Background: Graphene-based nanomaterials possess unique optical, physicochemical and biomedical properties which make them potential tools for imaging and therapy. Manganese oxide nanoparticles are attractive candidates for contrast agents in magnetic resonance imagint (MRI). We used manganese oxide (Mn3O4) and highly reduced graphene oxide (HRG) to synthesize hybrid nanoparticles (HRG-Mn3O4) and tested their efficacy for photodynamic therapy (PDT) in breast cancer cells. Methods: The newly synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. We used standard protocols of cytotoxicity and PDT after exposing A549 cells to various concentrations of hybrid nanoparticles (HRG-Mn3O4). We also performed fluorescence microscopy for live/dead cellular analysis. A549 cells were incubated with nanoparticles for 24 h and stained with fluorescein diacetate (green emission for live cells) and propidium iodide (red emission for dead cells) to visualize live and dead cells, respectively. Results: The cell viability analysis showed that more than 98% of A549 cells survived even after the exposure of a high concentration (100 μg/mL) of nanomaterials. These results confirmed that the HRG-Mn3O4 nanoparticles are nontoxic and biocompatible at physiological conditions. When the cell viability analysis was performed after laser irradiation, we observed significant and concentration-dependent cytotoxicity of HRG-Mn3O4 as compared to Mn3O4 nanoparticles. Fluorescence microscopy showed that almost 100% cells were viable when treated with phosphate buffered saline or Mn3O4 while only few dead cells were detected after exposure of HRG-Mn3O4 nanoparticles. However, laser irradiation resulted in massive cellular damage by HRG-Mn3O4 nanoparticles which was directly related to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Conclusions: HRG-Mn3O4 hybrid nanoparticles are stable, biocompatible, nontoxic, and possess therapeutic potential for photodynamic therapy of cancer. Further studies are warranted to explore the MRI imaging ability of these nanomaterials using animal models of cancer.

hybrid nanoparticles
manganese oxide
graphene oxide
photodynamic therapy
14-NAN-862-02/National Plan for Science, Technology and Innovation (MAARIFAH), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Fig. 1.
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