Introduction: Cancer is the leading cause of death globally according to WHO in 2020. It is initiated by genetic mutations that occur due to numerous factors. The aim of the review: This review provides a clear view of the potential use of chromosome 6 open reading frame 106 (C6orf106) as a biomarker, based on previous studies. Results: Recent studies have investigated the association of C6orf106 with breast cancer and non-small cell lung cancer and showed that silencing C6orf106 leads to inhibition of malignancy in both diseases, as well as showing a positive correlation between C6orf106 expression and malignancy. Other studies demonstrated the interaction of C6orf106 with other malignancy factors that play a role in many cancer types, such as cyclin A2, cyclin B1, N-cadherin, E-cadherin, c-MYC, p120ctn, and vimentin. These factors play a significant role in cellular adhesion and the regulation of the cell cycle. C6orf106 is a potential target for numerous cancers, not only non-small cell lung cancer and breast cancer. In conclusion: understanding the connection of C6orf106 with crucial malignancy factors makes it clear that C6orf106 is a potential therapeutic target and diagnostic biomarker for many disease cancer.