IMR Press / FBL / Volume 22 / Issue 4 / DOI: 10.2741/4508

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review

New insights on the role of DNA methylation from a global view

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1 Instituto de Fisiologia Celular, Departamento de Genetica Molecular, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan, Ciudad de Mexico, 04510, Mexico
Academic Editor:Diddier Prada
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2017, 22(4), 644–668; https://doi.org/10.2741/4508
Published: 1 January 2017
Abstract

In mammals, DNA methylation is a crucial epigenetic modification with key functions during development. Cellular processes that are regulated by DNA methylation comprise X chromosome inactivation, gene imprinting, genomic stability and transcriptional regulation. Generally, the methylation status of the majority of target sites is reliably propagated during mitosis. However, advances in genome-wide DNA methylation analysis at base-resolution have discovered a substantial amount of differential DNA methylation between normal cells of different tissue-origin. Moreover, aberrant DNA methylation changes are linked with a significant number of human diseases, particularly with cancer. Sites of differential and aberrant DNA methylation include regulatory DNA sequences, such as CpG islands in promoters and distal cis-regulatory elements, like enhancers. In this review, we will discuss novel aspects of DNA methylation dynamics, during normal development and in association with diseases.

Keywords
DNA Methylation
Cancer
CpG Island
Epigenetics
Non-coding RNA
Transcription Factor
Review
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