IMR Press / FBL / Volume 21 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.2741/4396

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article

Tlr4 regulates pulmonary vascular homeostasis and remodeling via redox signaling

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1 Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham AL 35294, Birmingham AL 35294, *current address: Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510120, China
2 Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham AL 35294, Birmingham AL 35294, USA
3 Department ofMedicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham AL 35294, Birmingham AL 35294, USA
4 Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham AL 35294, Birmingham AL 35294, USA
5 Department of Pediatric Dentistry, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham AL 35294, Birmingham AL 35294, USA
6 VA Medical Center, Birmingham AL 35294, USA
Academic Editor:Xiao-Feng Yang
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2016, 21(2), 397–409; https://doi.org/10.2741/4396
Published: 1 January 2016
Abstract

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) contributes to morbidity and mortality of patients with lung and heart diseases. We demonstrated that hypoxia induced PAH and increased pulmonary arterial wall thickness in wild-type mice. Mice deficient in toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4-/-) spontaneously developed PAH, which was not further enhanced by hypoxia. Echocardiography determined right ventricular hypertrophy and decreased pulmonary arterial acceleration time were associated with the development of PAH in TLR4-/- mice. In pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC), hypoxia decreased TLR4 expression and induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Nox1/Nox4. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase decreased hypoxia-induced proliferation of wild-type PASMC. PASMC derived from TLR4-/- mice exhibited increased ROS and Nox4/Nox1 expression. Our studies demonstrate an important role of TLR4 in maintaining normal pulmonary vasculature and in hypoxia-induced PAH. Inhibition of TLR4, by genetic ablation or hypoxia, increases the expression of Nox1/Nox4 and induces PASMC proliferation and vascular remodeling. These results support a novel function of TLR4 in regulating the development of PAH and reveal a new regulatory axis contributing to TLR4 deficiency-induced vascular hypertrophy and remodeling.

Keywords
Pulmonary Smooth Muscle Cells
Proliferation
Remodeling
Toll-Like Receptor
Oxidative Stress Signals
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