IMR Press / FBL / Volume 21 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.2741/4388

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.


Role of Toll-like receptors in systemic Candida albicans infections

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1 Departament de Microbiologia i Ecologia, Universitat de Valencia, Burjassot, Spain
2 Estructura de Investigacion Interdisciplinar en Biotecnologia y Medicina (ERI BIOTECMED), Universitat de Valencia, Burjassot, Spain
3 Board of Governors Regenerative Medicine Institute and Research Division of Immunology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2016, 21(2), 278–302;
Published: 1 January 2016

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) constitute a family of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize molecular signatures of microbial pathogens and function as sensors for infection. Recognition of Candida albicans by TLRs on mature immune cells, such as phagocytic cells, activates intracellular signalling pathways that trigger production of proinflammatory cytokines which are critical for innate host defence and orchestrate the adaptive response. TLR2, and TLR4 in a minor extent, recognize cell wall-associated ligands; endosomal TLR9 and TLR7 recognize DNA and RNA respectively. Interaction of C. albicans with TLRs is a complex process, as TLRs may collaborate with other PRRs and expression of surface-associated fungal ligands depends on the strain and the morphotype (yeasts or hyphae), thus defining the final induced adaptive response (Th1/Th2/Th17). TLRs are also expressed on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) where they may play a role in modulating hematopoiesis; engagement of TLR2 induces, upon recognition of C. albicans, the differentiation of HSPCs towards specific subsets of mature myeloid cells. This has opened a new perspective for anti-Candida immunointervention.

Toll-like receptors
Candida albicans
Systemic candidiasis
Innate and adaptive immunity
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