Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
EFFECTS OF ETHANOL ON GLIAL CELL PROLIFERATION: RELEVANCE TO THE FETAL
Exposure to ethanol during pregnancy is detrimental to brain development. Individuals affected by the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome present a number of central nervous system dysfunctions including microencephaly and mental retardation. Studies on the mechanisms of ethanol's developmental neurotoxicity have focused on its interaction with neurons; however, emerging evidence is suggesting that ethanol can significantly affect glial cells as well. A number of in vitro studies have shown that ethanol can inhibit the proliferation of various glial cells (mostly primary astrocytes or astrocytoma cells) at relatively high concentrations (100-200 mM). On the other hand, proliferation induced by some, but not all mitogens, is inhibited by low concentrations (10-50 mM) of ethanol. These inhibitory effects of ethanol may contribute to its developmental neurotoxicity observed following in vivo exposure. Animal models have indeed shown that ethanol causes microencephaly when given during the brain growth spurt, a period of brain development characterized by astroglial proliferation and maturation.