IMR Press / FBL / Volume 19 / Issue 7 / DOI: 10.2741/4268

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
Molecular, histopathological, and genomic variants of glioblastoma
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1 Department of Neurosurgery, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
2 Department of Pathology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, 10595, USA
3 Department of Neurosurgery,University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 23, Ulm, D-89081, Germany
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2014, 19(7), 1065–1087; https://doi.org/10.2741/4268
Published: 1 June 2014
Abstract

Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common primary brain tumor, has a poor median prognosis despite modern surgical, chemotherapeutic, and radiation modalities, which have shown little clinical efficacy. Initially categorized by clinicopathological classification into de novo primary GBM and secondary GBM, which arises from lower-grade glioma, genomic studies have elucidated several distinct genotypes. In addition, distinct patterns of dysregulated epidermal growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, p53, phosphatase and tensin homolog, cell cycle proteins, and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1, as well as loss of heterozygosity in multiple chromosomes complicate the GBM mutational landscape. Even with the many approaches in targeting these mutations, a long-standing clinical cure remains limited because of the tremendous heterogeneity and challenges in developing targeted treatments. Furthermore, this cancer utilizes ingenious approaches to subvert targeted agents and pathological variants of GBM demonstrate distinct molecular signatures, which may impact prognosis. This review discusses the collective understanding of GBM heterogeneity, including molecular, histopathological, and genomic features; why treatments have failed in the past; and how future clinical trials and therapies can be devised.

Keywords
GBM
Glioma
Glioblastoma
Variant
Expression Profile
Subtypes
Review
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