IMR Press / FBL / Volume 19 / Issue 6 / DOI: 10.2741/4263

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review

Burn to cycle: Energetics of cell-cycle control and stem cell maintenance

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1 Institute of Biology, Leiden University, Sylviusweg 72, 2333 BE Leiden, The Netherlands
Academic Editor:Stavros Taraviras
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2014, 19(6), 1003–1014; https://doi.org/10.2741/4263
Published: 1 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem cells and cell cycle)
Abstract

Stem cells have the unique ability to both maintain the stem cell population via self-renewal and give rise to differentiated cells. The balance between these options is very delicate and important for the short- and long-term maintenance of tissue homeostasis in an organism. Pathways involved in integrating environmental cues and in directing energy metabolism play an important role in the fate decisions of stem cells. In this review, we give an overview of the effects of cellular and systemic metabolic states on stem-cell fate in both embryonic and in adult stem cell populations, with a particular emphasis on cell-cycle regulation. We discuss the major pathways implicated in sensing energetic status and regulating metabolism, including: the mTOR pathway, Forkhead-boxO transcription factors (FoxOs), Sirtuins, reactive oxygen species (ROS), AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and LKB1, the mTOR pathway and hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs). Given the importance of a correct balance between selfrenewal and differentiation, understanding the mechanisms that drive stem-cell fate in different metabolic conditions will provide more insight in stem cell biology in both health and disease.

Keywords
Metabolism
Stem Cells
Cell Cycle
SelfRenewal
Review
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