IMR Press / FBL / Volume 17 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.2741/3963

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review
The biology of equine mesenchymal stem cells: phenotypic characterization, cell surface markers and multilineage differentiation
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1 Musculoskeletal Research Group, Division of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Leicestershire, LE12 5RD, United Kingdom
2 Equine Studies Group, WALTHAM Centre for Pet Nutrition, Waltham-on-the-Wolds, Leicestershire, LE14 4RT, United Kingdom
3 Wolfson Centre for Stem cells, Tissue Engineering and Modelling (STEM), Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park Campus, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, United Kingdom
Academic Editor:Ali Mobasheri
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2012, 17(3), 892–908; https://doi.org/10.2741/3963
Published: 1 January 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current trends in cartilage and mesenchymal stem cell biology)
Abstract

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that can give rise to a range of connective tissue cells including osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. MSCs have been isolated from humans and a variety of animal species including rodents, dogs, horses and rabbits. There is currently no consensus on how these cells are identified and characterized. This is partly due to the lack of standardized specific cell surface markers for MSCs. The aim of this review is to examine the literature on equine MSCs and establish whether there is a well-defined phenotype for these cells. Equine MSCs have been obtained from four main sources, bone marrow, adipose tissue, umbilical cord (blood and matrix) and peripheral blood. MSCs from these tissue sources have been shown to undergo chondrogenic, adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation. However the markers used to identify these cells vary significantly in the literature. Despite this, CD90 and CD34 seem to be reliable positive and negative markers respectively. Our understanding of the biology of equine MSCs will benefit from better reagents for their phenotypic characterization. The antibodies and molecular probes needed for the reliable identification of equine MSCs are not standardized and this is a high priority for future research.

Keywords
Mesenchymal stem cell
Equine
Phenotypic characterization
Cell surface marker
Differentiation
Review
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